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Motivation Theory

September 26, 2017

The word motivation is derived from the Latin word "movere", which means to move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates and directs behavior. The term motivation theory refers to the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. It is considered to be one of the most important areas of organizational behavior study. There are two different categories of motivational theories such as content theories, and process theories. Although there are different motivational theories, no universities will be accepted.

Also known as need theory, the content theory of motivation focuses on the internal factors that stimulate and lead human behavior. Maslow's hierarchy of the needs, the ERF's theory of Alderfer, Herzeberg's dual factor theory's motivator-hygiene theory (McDonald's dual factor theory) and McClelland's learned needs or three-needs theory are some of the key content theories .

The various types of content theories, the most famous content theory, are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs. Basic needs are categorized as physiological needs, safety and security needs, needs of love, self-esteem and self-control.

Like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory explains the existence, the relationship and the growth needed. Herzeberg describes, through dual-factor theory, certain factors in the workplace that lead to job satisfaction. McClelland's learned needs or three needs theory uses a projective technique called the Thematical Aptitude Test (TAT) to evaluate people based on three needs: power, performance, and affiliation. People with high energy need act in ways that affect the behavior of the other.

Another type of motivation theory is process theory. Process theories of motivation provide the opportunity to understand thinking processes that influence behavior. The main process theories of motivation include Adams equity theory, Vroom's theory of theory, goal theory and reinforcement theory. Expectation, instrumentality and valency are the key concepts explained in the expectation theory. Objective theory suggests that individuals are motivated to achieve set goals. It also requires that the stated goals should be specific. Strengthening theory refers to controlling behavior by manipulating its effects.

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