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Four key theories about motivation

October 12, 2017

Motivation is a psychological function that is related to emotions, but distinguishes them. When it comes to other animals, motivation is almost identical or inseparable from the instinct. For example, predators like wolves and lions, reasons to hunt, especially by hunger. Motivation is usually complex because the intellectual capacity increases an organism, such as in monkeys and humans.

Human motivation

In terms of people, motivation is directly related to success in achieving difficult but desirable and rewarding goals. Stronger motivation is needed because the goal becomes challenging and as competitors. Straight-A students, champions, athletes, celebrities and powerful politicians are just a few examples of high achievers, whose successes are directly related to their strong motivations.

It may seem that opportunities and talents are the most important factors for success, but without strong motivation, these can easily be wasted. Many successful people are not necessarily the most intelligent or talented, but they have the right attitude. Successful people always see opportunities, even in times of difficulty and initial failures.

Motivation is an important issue in any competitive and productivity-oriented environment. It is a crucial issue at work. It's a complex problem that has many variables, making it difficult to describe and maintain.

Many psychologists, management experts and sociologists try to classify and define motivation; Here are some of the most important theories.

1.) Incentive theory of motivation: Obtaining something beneficial or desirable is the fundamental assumption of this theory. This theory emphasizes extrinsic rewards as the main reason why people are motivated to do specific actions. It is the proverbial root that hangs at the end of a stick. It is obvious that people are usually motivated to see the prospects of rewards such as extra monetary incentives or bonuses to achieve a difficult task at work.

2.) Escape-seeking dichotomy model: This model attempts to describe the motivation of people in terms of the dichotomy between escape and search. For example, someone who is poor can escape the unfavorable situation, but at the same time strive for better opportunities.

3.) Drive Reduction theory: As the name implies, the theory emphasizes the intrinsic biological and psychological drives that must be met. Strong drives imply strong motivation or behavioral modifications aimed at the drive, reducing the intensity. A person who is already at the height of success in a particular field may find it alarming to do the same things and seek other goals.

4.) Need theory: This theory is based on the idea of ​​the hierarchy of needs. It emphasized the concept of resource optimization and efforts to meet specific needs. This is actually a broad theory that includes the two-factor theory of Herzberg, the ERG theory of the Alderfer and self-determination theory.

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